Robel v. Roundup Corporation, 148 Wn.2d 35 (Wash. 2002)

NOTE: The following article is my summary of an appellate court opinion based upon my point of view. This is not a resource for the actual and complete appellate court opinion. Please review our Disclaimer|Terms of Use|Privacy Policy before proceeding.


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CASE SUMMARY:

(1) This suit arises out of Linda Robel’s employment from May 31, 1995, to September 12, 1996, in the service deli at … [the] Fred Meyer store in Spokane.

(2) On July 14, 1996, Robel sustained a workplace injury and timely filed a workers’ compensation claim.

(3) In late July, Robel was given a light-duty assignment, “a four-hour shift” during which she stood “at a display table outside the deli area offering samples of food items to customers.”.

(4) On August 1, 1996, as Robel worked at the display table, two deli workers “laughed” and “acted out a slip and fall,” as one of them yelled, “Oh, I hurt my back, L & I, L & I!”

(5) They “audibly called [Robel] a ‘bitch’ and ‘cun[-].'”

(6) They also “told customers she had lied about her back and was being punished by Fred Meyer by ‘demoing’ pizzas.”

(7) In journal entries for August 2, 3, 10, and 11, Robel wrote that assistant deli manager Amy Smith and others made fun of her, laughed, pointed, and gave her “dirty looks.”

(8) Robel also noted that on August 13, Smith and other deli workers would “stare at [her], whisper out loud, & laugh, pretending to hurt their backs & laugh.”

(9) Robel reported the incidents to her union representative, Ron Banka

(10) According to Robel’s journal, Banka came in on August 14, 1996, and set up a meeting with Steve Wissink, the store director, for Friday, August 16.

(11) At [a subsequent all-deli employee meeting, called by Wissink on August 19, 1996,] Wissink warned the employees that future harassment could result in termination.

(12) On August 22, 1996, deli workers “laughed and audibly admonished each other not to harass Robel.”

(13) On August 28 and 30, Robel noted in her journal that co-workers were talking about her and laughing at her, and she recorded that, on September 2, Smith and other workers “had a great time making fun of [her], calling [her] names[,] pretending to hurt their backs & yelling L & I.”

(14) On September 13, 1996, Robel secured a two-week work release from her doctor and gave it to Smith that same day.

(15) Before Robel left the deli, she overheard Smith comment to other deli employees, “Can you believe it, Linda’s gonna sit on her big ass and get paid.”

(16) Robel again contacted [her union rep], who in turn contacted Wissink on September 20, 1996.

(17) On September 24, Wissink telephoned Robel to confirm the allegations. Robel “told him about the C word and Bitch[,] the little plays they were doing about [her] back.”

(18) On September 28, 1996, Wissink terminated one employee.

(19) Robel never returned to work at Fred Meyer.

(20) On February 13, 1998, Robel filed suit against Fred Meyer, stating claims for disability discrimination …, retaliation for filing a workers’ compensation claim …, negligent and intentional infliction of emotional distress, and defamation.

(21) The trial court denied Fred Meyer’s motion for summary judgment … [f]inding for Robel on all five causes of action[.]

(22) Fred Meyer appealed. The Court of Appeals reversed the trial court’s judgment on all claims.

Robel v. Roundup Corporation, 148 Wn.2d 35, 59, P.3d 611 (Wash. 2002).


ISSUE #1:  Does the Washington Law Against Discrimination, Chapter 49.60 RCW, support an employee’s disability based hostile work environment claim?

 

-RULE-

WASHINGTON LAW AGAINST DISCRIMINATION:  Under the Washington Law Against Discrimination (WLAD), RCW 49.60, “It is an unfair practice for any employer to discriminate against any person in compensation or in other terms or conditions of employment because of age, sex, marital status, race, creed, color, national origin, or the presence of any sensory, mental, or physical disability.” Id. at 43 (citing RCW 49.60.180(3)) (alteration to the original).

RULES OF CONSTRUCTION:  To determine whether the Washington Law Against Discrimination “supports a disability claim based on hostile work environment, [courts] may look to federal cases construing analogous federal statutes.” Id. (citing Fahn v. Cowlitz County, 93 Wash.2d 368, 376, 610 P.2d 857 (1980), 621 P.2d 1293 (1980)).

 

-ANALYSIS-

In this case, the Court determined that whether the Washington Law Against Discrimination supported a disability based hostile work environment was an issue of first impression in the State. It then reasoned that “just as the federal cases extended the Title VII hostile work environment claim (and its standards of proof) to the ADA, we may extend the reasoning in Glasgow to disability claims.” Id. at 45.

 

-CONCLUSION-

The Court held that “the [Washington Law Against Discrimination] … supports a disability based hostile work environment claim.” Id. at 43.

 


ISSUE #2:  Did the trial court’s unchallenged findings of fact satisfy the elements of Robel’s disability based hostile work environment claim?

 

-RULE-

DISABILITY BASED HOSTILE WORK ENVIRONMENT: In order to establish a disability based hostile work environment case, a plaintiff must prove “(1) that he or she was disabled within the meaning of the antidiscrimination statute[, WLAD], (2) that the harassment was unwelcome, (3) that it was because of the disability, (4) that it affected the terms and conditions of employment, and (5) that it was imputable to the employer.” Id. at 45.

THE SECOND ELEMENT (UNWELCOME): To establish that the harassment was unwelcome, “the plaintiff must show that he or she ‘did not solicit or incite it’ and viewed it as ‘undesirable or offensive.'” Id. (citing Glasgow v. Georgia-Pac. Corp., 103 Wn.2d 401, 406, 693, P.2d 708 (Wash. 1985)).

THE THIRD ELEMENT (BECAUSE OF DISABILITY): To establish that the harassment was “because of disability,” requires “[t]hat the disability of the plaintiff-employee be the motivating factor for the unlawful discrimination.” Id. at 46 (citing Glasgow, 103 Wash.2d at 406, 693 P.2d 708)) (alteration to the original). This element requires a nexus between the specific harassing conduct and the particular injury or disability. Id.

THE FOURTH ELEMENT (TERMS & CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT): To establish that the harassment affected the terms and conditions of employment, “the harassment must be sufficiently pervasive so as to alter the conditions of employment and create an abusive working environment.” Id. at (citing Glasgow, 103 Wash.2d at 406, 693 P.2d 708)) (alteration to the original). “[A] satisfactory finding on this element should indicate “that the conduct or language complained of was so offensive or pervasive that it could reasonably be expected to alter the conditions of plaintiff’s employment.'” Id. (citing 6A WASHINGTON PATTERN JURY INSTRUCTIONS: CIVIL 330.23, at 240) (alteration to the original).

THE FIFTH ELEMENT (IMPUTABLE TO EMPLOYER): To impute harassment to an employer, “the jury must find either that (1) an owner, manager, partner or corporate officer personally participate[d] in the harassment or that (2) the employer … authorized, knew, or should have known of the harassment and failed to take reasonably prompt adequate corrective action.” Id. at 47 (internal citation and quotation marks omitted) (alteration to the original).

 

-ANALYSIS-

THE FIRST ELEMENT (DISABLED):  In this case, neither party contested that Robel’s injury was a disability under RCW 49.60.180(3). Id. at 35Therefore, the Court did not further define disabled within the meaning of the antidiscrimination statute. Id.

THE SECOND ELEMENT (UNWELCOME):  The Court found that no findings suggested that Robel solicited or incited the remarks made about her workplace injury. Id. at 45. That Robel viewed the employer’s conduct as undesirable and offensive was at least implicit in her reporting the conduct to Banka (her Union Representative). Id. at 45-46.

THE THIRD ELEMENT (BECAUSE OF DISABILITY): The trial court found that the verbal and non-verbal harassment of Robel in the work setting after July 14, 1996, was directly or proximately related related to her disability and/or Fred Meyer’s perception of Robel as disabled. See id. at 46. The Court, in the instant case, elected not to substitute their judgment for that of the trial court. Id.

THE FOURTH ELEMENT (TERMS & CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT): The trial court found that Fred Meyer created a hostile and abusive work environment and that the environment was offensive to Robel. Id. at 46-47 (internal quotation marks omitted). The Court, in the instant case, pointed to an additional trial court finding as follows: “Fred Meyer discriminated against Robel in the terms or conditions of employment when it participated in and/or failed to bring to an end … the verbal and non-verbal harassment of Robel in the work setting.” Id. at 47. The Court, in the instant case, found that this language echoed the “critical language from Glasgow and the pattern jury instruction”; it accepted the findings as “verities” and passed on “any reweighing of the evidence supporting them.” Id.

THE FIFTH ELEMENT (IMPUTABLE TO EMPLOYER): The Court identified relevant trial court findings as follows: (1) “Fred Meyer, through the acts of its managers, participated, authorized, knew and/or should have known of the verbal and non-verbal harassment of Robel in the work setting subsequent to July 14, 1996”; (2) “Fred Meyer’s management personnel improperly participated in and/or allowed the verbal and non-verbal harassment in the work setting”; (3) “deli manager Potts and assistant deli manager Smith were management personnel for purposes of employer liability”; (4) “Fred Meyer’s remedial action … was not of such nature to have been reasonably calculated to end the harassment”; (5) “[Fred Meyer’s] investigations and termination of [one co-worker] without further management corrections were inadequate”; and (6) “the postinjury harassment was ‘imputed to Fred Meyer.'” Id. at 48 (internal citations and quotation marks omitted). The Court found that these uncontested findings of fact satisfy both options derived from Glasgow. Id.

 

-CONCLUSION-

The Court concluded “that the Court of Appeals erred when it ignored the trial court’s unchallenged findings of fact on the five essential elements of the claim.” Id. at 48. It then reversed “the Court of Appeals and reinstated the trial court’s judgment in Robel’s favor.” Id.

 


ISSUE #3:  Did the trial court’s unchallenged findings of fact support the conclusion that Fred Meyer, in violation of RCW 51.48.025(1), retaliated against Robel for filing a workers’ compensation claim?

 

-RULE-

WORKERS’ COMPENSATION ANTI-RETALIATION STATUTE:  The Washington Industrial Insurance Act “provides that no employer may discharge or in any manner discriminate against any employee because such employee has filed or communicated to the employer an intent to file a claim for compensation or exercises any rights provided under this title.” Id. at 48-49 (citing RCW 51.48.025(1)) (emphasis in original).

 

-ANALYSIS-

In this case, the Court framed the issue essentially as follows: Whether the Workers’ Compensation Anti-Retaliation Statute, RCW 51.48.025(1), applies to an employer “who has allegedly discriminated in some way, short of discharge, against an employee because she filed a workers’ compensation claim[?]” See id. at 50. It then found that, “by analogy with Wilmot v. Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corp., 118 Wn.2d 46, 68, 821 P.2d 18 (1991), which required proof of a causal connection between the filing of a claim and the allegedly retaliatory termination, Robel was required to prove that she had filed a claim, that Fred Meyer thereafter discriminated against her in some way, and that the claim and the discrimination were causally connected.” Id. at 50.

 

-CONCLUSION-

The Court held that “because the findings of fact satisfy these elements and were not challenged on appeal, we reverse the Court of Appeals on the retaliation claim and reinstate the trial court’s judgment in Robel’s favor.” Id.

 


ISSUE #4:  Did the Court of Appeals properly hold as a matter of law that Robel’s claim for intentional infliction of emotional distress should not go to the trier of fact?

 

-RULE-

IIED ELEMENTS: To succeed on a claim for outrage–also known as intentional infliction of emotional distress–“a plaintiff must prove three elements: (1) extreme and outrageous conduct, (2) intentional or reckless infliction of emotional distress, and (3) severe emotional distress on the part of the plaintiff.” Id. at 51 (internal citations and quotation marks omitted) (emphasis added).

QUESTIONS FOR THE JURY: The three elements are fact questions for the jury, and the first element of the test goes to the jury only after the court determines “if reasonable minds could differ on whether the conduct was sufficiently extreme to result in liability.” Id.

EXTREME & OUTRAGEOUS CONDUCT: To establish the first IIED element, the plaintiff must prove “that the conduct was so outrageous in character, and so extreme in degree, as to go beyond all possible bounds of decency, and to be regarded as atrocious, and utterly intolerable in a civilized community.” Id. (citing Dicomes v. State, 113 Wn.2d 612, 630, 782 P.2d 1002 (1989)) (internal quotation marks omitted).

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARTIES (IIED): In an outrage claim “[t]he relationship between the parties is a significant factor in determining whether liability should be imposed.” Id. at 52 (citing Contreras v. Crown Zellerback Corp., 88 Wn.2d 735, 741, 565 P.2d 1173 (1977)). “The Contreras court emphasized that ‘added impetus’ is given to an outrage claim ‘[w]hen one in a position of authority, actual or apparent, over another has allegedly made racial slurs and jokes and comments.” Id. (citing Contreras v. Crown Zellerback Corp., 88 Wn.2d 735, 741, 565 P.2d 1173 (1977); see also White v. Monsanto Co., 585 So.2d 1205, 1210 (La. 1991) (stating that “plaintiff’s status as an employee may entitle him to a greater degree of protection from insult and outrage by a supervisor with authority over him than if her were a stranger”)).

VICARIOUS LIABILITY: “Once an employee’s underlying tort is established, the employer will be held vicariously liable if ‘the employee was acting within the scope of his employment.'” Id. at 53 (citing Dickinson v. Edwards, 105 Wn.2d 457, 469, 716 P.2d 814 (1986)). “An employer can defeat a claim of vicarious liability by showing that the employee’s conduct was (1) ‘intentional or criminal’ and (2) ‘outside the scope of employment.'” Id. (citing Niece v. Elmview Group Home, 131 Wn.2d 39, 56, 929 P.2d 420 (1997) (emphasis in original), quoted with approval in Snyder v. Med. Servs. Corp. of E. Wash., 145 Wn.2d 233, 242-43, 35 P.3d 1158 (2001).

SCOPE OF EMPLOYMENT: “An employee’s conduct will be outside the scope of employment if it “is different in kind from that authorized, far beyond the authorized time or space limits, or too little actuated by a purpose to serve the master.'” Id. (citing RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF AGENCY § 228(2) (1958); see also RESTATEMENT, supra,  § 228(1).

 

-ANALYSIS-

FIRST ELEMENT (EXTREME & OUTRAGEOUS CONDUCT): “Robel was called in her workplace names so vulgar that they have acquired nicknames, such as ‘the C word,’ for example.” Id. at 52. (internal citation omitted) (emphasis in original).

VICARIOUS LIABILITY: “Fred Meyer deli workers tormented Robel on company property during working hours, as they interacted with co-workers and customers and performed the duties they were hired to perform. Nothing in the record suggests that the abusive employees left their job stations or neglected their assigned duties to launch the verbal attacks on Robel.” Id. at 54.

 

-CONCLUSION-

On the threshold question (extreme and outrageous conduct) the Court concluded that reasonable minds could conclude that, in light of the severity and context of the conduct, it was beyond all possible bounds of decency, atrocious, and utterly intolerable in a civilized community. See id. at 51-52. The Court also concluded that Fred Meyer was vicariously liable, “that reasonable minds could find the complained-of conduct outrageous, and that the uncontested findings satisfied the three elements of outrage.” Id. at 54-55.

The Court then reversed the Court of Appeals and reinstated the trial court’s judgment for Robel on her claim for intentional infliction of emotional distress. Id. at 55. Because Robel was successful on this claim, the Court found it unnecessary to consider Robel’s companion claim for negligent infliction of emotional distress. Id.

 


ISSUE #5:  Were the allegedly defamatory communications cited in the trial court’s findings capable of defamatory meaning?

 

-RULE-

DEFAMATION: A defamation plaintiff must prove the following four essential elements: (1) falsity, (2) an unprivileged communication, (3) fault, and (4) damages. Id. at 55 (citing Mark v. Seattle Times, 96 Wn.2d 473, 486, 635 P.2d 1081 (1981), cert. denied, 457 U.S. 1124, 102 S.Ct. 2942, 73 L.Ed. 2d 1339 (1982)) (emphasis added).

FALSITY: “Before the truth or falsity of an allegedly defamatory statement can be assessed, a plaintiff must prove that the words constituted a statement of fact, not an opinion. Because expressions of opinion are protected under the First Amendment, they are not actionable.” Id. (citing Camer v. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 45 Wn.App. 29, 39, 723 P.2d 1195 (1986) (internal quotation marks and citations omitted) (emphasis added). “Whether the allegedly defamatory words were intended as a statement of fact or an expression of opinion is a threshold question of law for the court.” Id. (internal citations omitted).

TOTALITY OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES: To determine whether words should be viewed as nonactionable opinions, the court considers the totality of the circumstances surrounding those statements. Id. at 56.

DUNLAP 3-FACTOR TEST: To determine whether a statement is nonactionable, a court should consider at least (1) the medium and context in which the statement was published, (2) the audience to whom it was published, and (3) whether the statement implies undisclosed facts.” Id. (citing Dunlap v. Wayne, 105 Wn.2d 529, 539, 716 P.2d 842 (1986)).

 

-ANALYSIS-

THE VULGARISMS (I.E., “BITC-,” “CUN-,” “FUC-ING BITC-,” “FUC-ING CUN-“) ALONG WITH THE WORD “IDIOT”: The Court concluded that these vulgarisms along with the word “idiot” were plainly abusive words, but they were not intended to be taken literally as statements of fact. Id. Thus, they did not pass the threshold question of law.

THE WORDS “SNITCH,” “SQUEALER,” AND “LIAR”: The Court considered the totality of the circumstances and applied the Dunlap Three-Factor Test. It held as a matter of law that these words also constituted nonactionable opinions. Id. at 56.

Regarding the First Dunlap Factor (Medium & Context): the Court found that the oral statements were made in circumstances and places that invited exaggeration and personal opinion. Id. 

Regarding the Second Dunlap Factor (The Audience): the Court found that the employee audience (i.e., Fred Meyer co-workers and management personnel) was “prepared for mischaracterization and exaggeration” and would have registered the words, if at all, “as expressions of personal opinion, not as statements of fact.” Id. at 57. And customers hearing the words “would reasonably perceive that the speaker was an antagonistic or resentful co-worker.” Id. 

Regarding the Third Dunlap Factor (Whether the Words Implied Undisclosed Defamatory Facts): deli workers would have known the facts ostensibly underlying the words, and the words disclosed to customers (i.e., “that Robel was demoing pizzas because she had lied about her back”) “implies no undisclosed defamatory facts.” Id. (internal quotation marks omitted).

 

-CONCLUSION-

The Court concluded that all of the utterances were nonactionable opinions and reaffirmed the reversal of the trial court’s judgment on Robel’s defamation claim. Id.

 



NOTABLES & IMPLICATIONS:

DISABILITY

[~1]  This case adds an additional initial element to the hostile work environment rule for cases based on disability. He or she must be disabled within the meaning of the Washington Law Against Discrimination.

INTENTIONAL INFLICTION OF EMOTIONAL DISTRESS

[~2]  The standard for an outrage claim is very high (meaning that the conduct supporting the claim must be appallingly low). See id. at 51.

[~3]  Relationship Between Parties. In an outrage claim, “[t]he relationship between the parties is a significant factor in determining whether liability should be imposed.” Id. at 52 (citing Contreras v. Crown Zellerback Corp., 88 Wn.2d 735, 741, 565 P.2d 1173 (1977)). “The Contreras court emphasized that ‘added impetus’ is given to an outrage claim ‘[w]hen one in a position of authority, actual or apparent, over another has allegedly made racial slurs and jokes and comments.” Id. (citing Contreras v. Crown Zellerback Corp., 88 Wn.2d 735, 741, 565 P.2d 1173 (1977); see also White v. Monsanto Co., 585 So.2d 1205, 1210 (La. 1991) (stating that “plaintiff’s status as an employee may entitle him to a greater degree of protection from insult and outrage by a supervisor with authority over him than if her were a stranger”)). 

PERSONAL JOURNALS / DIARIES

[~4]  In Washington State, an employee’s personal journal entries regarding discrimination at work might be allowed by the court to support a claim of unlawful employment discrimination. See, e.g., id. at 41.

SEXUAL HARASSMENT

[~5]  Washington Law Against Discrimination prohibits sexual harassment in employment, with such claims being generally categorized as quid pro quo harassment claims or hostile work environment claims. See id. at 43 (citing DeWater v. State, 130 Wn.2d 128, 134-35, 921 P.2d 1059 (1996)) (internal citations and quotation marks omitted).

TITLE VII & WLAD

[~6]  “The [Washington Law Against Discrimination,] … which applies with equal force to sex based and disability based employment discrimination, is analogous to Title VII and the ADA.” Id. at 44.

[~7]  Although federal cases interpreting Title VII are not binding on the Court, they are instructive and supportive. See id. at 44.

VICARIOUS LIABILITY

 [~8]  Intentional or criminal conduct is not per se outside the cope of employment. Id. at 53.

[~9]  It is not the case that an employer will be vicariously liable only where it has specifically authorized an employee to act in an intentionally harmful or negligent manner. See id.

[~10]  An employer may not insulate itself from vicarious liability merely by adopting a general policy proscribing bad behavior that would otherwise be actionable. Id.

[~11]  The proper vicarious liability inquiry is whether the employee was fulfilling his or her job functions at the time he or she engaged in the injurious conduct. See id.

[~12]  When a servant steps aside from the master’s business in order to effect some purpose of his own, the master is not liable. Id. at 54 (citing Kuehn v. White, 24 Wn.App. 274, 277, 600 P.2d 679 (1979)) (internal quotation marks omitted).

[~13]  Where an employee’s acts are directed toward personal sexual gratification, the employee’s conduct falls outside the scope of his or her employment. See id.

WORKERS’ COMPENSATION ANTI-RETALIATION STATUTE

[~14]  To establish a claim of unlawful workers’ compensation retaliation, a plaintiff must prove (1) that the plaintiff filed a claim, (2) that the employer thereafter discriminated against the plaintiff is some way, and (3) that the claim and the discrimination were causally connected. See id. at 50. 

 


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Glasgow v. Georgia Pacific Corp., 103 Wn.2d 401 (Wash. 1985)

NOTE: The following article is my summary of an appellate court opinion based upon my point of view. This is not a resource for the actual and complete appellate court opinion. Please review our Disclaimer|Terms of Use|Privacy Policy before proceeding.


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CASE SUMMARY:

[1]  This case of first impression in this state involves sexual harassment at the work place.

[2]  Two female employees brought suit against their employer, Georgia-Pacific Corporation, alleging sex discrimination in violation of RCW 49.60 and the tort of outrage [also known as intentional infliction of emotional distress].

[3]  From October 1979 until January 1982, … a male co-worker, on several occasions ‘would place his hands on [one of the plaintiff’s] hips and rub his crotch across her back side as he was passing[,] … [stared] at her breasts[,] … placed his hand on her right breast without any welcome or invitation … and approach[ed] her from behind and grabbing her buttocks with his hands.’

[4]  As early as November 1979 the plant manager knew this male employee was ‘using abusive language around female employees’ and had ‘touched or fondled’ this plaintiff and another female employee ‘in an unwanted sexual way.’ No corrective or disciplinary action was taken.

[5]  Complaints of the co-worker’s ‘other intimidating behavior’ toward this plaintiff were lodged again in mid-1981, this time to a plant superintendent who acknowledged that other female employees, including the other plaintiff in this action, were also having problems with this male co-worker.

[6]  Shortly thereafter, this plaintiff began to hear threats and complaints concerning her job performance purportedly coming from the plant manager.

[7]  The other plaintiff had been working for the employer for only a month when the same male co-worker began to press himself against her in the same manner as he passed by her.

[8]  A complaint was lodged with the plaint superintendent.

[9]  The male co-worker would also stare at her ‘in a sexually intimidating way, follow her about the plant, in such a way that it intimidated her, [and] interfered with her work performance.’

[10]  She tried to avoid him and informed the plant manager ‘who did nothing.’ She and yet another female employee confronted the plant manager about this ‘continued sexual harassment.’

[11]  The male co-worker was finally transferred to another shift, but his course of intimidation continued. In addition, other employees, including a supervisor, acted ‘in an intimidating fashion’ toward this plaintiff because of her complaints.

[12]  Not until February 1982 was the male co-worker given a 3-day suspension ‘based on his prior acts of sexual harassment.’

[13]  One of the plaintiffs suffered ‘severe emotional anguish and distress demonstrated by physical symptoms’ of various kinds. She resigned in December 1981 after working less than 9 months.

[14]  The other plaintiff was ’emotionally and psychologically injured’ and likewise demonstrated physical manifestations of ‘severe emotional distress.’ She resigned in October 1982.

[15]  The trial court found that as a result of the foregoing acts and inactions, along with other similar ones, a hostile and intimidating work environment was created and it was this which proximately caused severe emotional distress to the plaintiffs.

[16]  The trial court also found that these facts constituted the tort of outrage but that they did not permit a finding that either of the plaintiffs were constructively discharged from their jobs.

-Glasgow v. Georgia Pacific Corp., 103 Wn.2d 401 (Wash. 1985).


ISSUE #1:  Did the trial court err in concluding that the employer was liable for sexual discrimination in violation of RCW 49.60?

 

-RULE-

PROMPT & ADEQUATE CORRECTIVE ACTION:  Under RCW 49.60, “an employer may ordinarily avoid liability for sexual harassment by taking prompt and adequate corrective action when it learns that an employee is being sexually harassed.” Id. at 408.

HOSTILE WORK ENVIRONMENT:  “To establish a work environment sexual harassment case … an employee must prove the existence of the following [four] elements[:]” (1) the harassment was unwelcome; (2) the harassment was because of sex; (3) the harassment affected the terms or conditions of employment; and (4) the harassment is imputed to the employer. Id. at 406-07

(1) THE HARASSMENT WAS UNWELCOME:  In order to constitute harassment, the complained of conduct must be unwelcome in the sense that the plaintiff-employee did not solicit or incite it, and in the further sense that the employee regarded the conduct as undesirable or offensive. Id. at 406

(2) THE HARASSMENT WAS BECAUSE OF SEX:  The question to be answered here is: would the employee have been singled out and caused to suffer the harassment if the employee had been of a different sex? Id. This statutory criterion requires that the gender of the plaintiff-employee be the motivating factor for the unlawful discrimination. Id.

(3) THE HARASSMENT AFFECTED THE TERMS OR CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT:  Casual, isolated or trivial manifestations of a discriminatory environment do not affect the terms or conditions of employment to a sufficiently significant degree to violate the law. Id. at 406-07. The harassment must be sufficiently pervasive so as to alter the conditions of employment and create an abusive working environment. Id.

Whether the harassment at the workplace is sufficiently severe and persistent to seriously affect the emotional or psychological well being of an employee is a question to be determined with regard to the totality of the circumstancesId. 

(4) THE HARASSMENT IS IMPUTED TO THE EMPLOYER:  Where an owner, manager, partner or corporate officer personally participates in the harassment, this element is met by such proof. Id. at 407.

To hold an employer responsible for the discriminatory work environment created by a plaintiff’s supervisor(s) or co-worker(s), the employee must show that the employer (a) authorized, knew, or should have known of the harassment and (b) failed to take reasonably prompt and adequate corrective action. Id.

This may be shown by proving (a) that complaints were made to the employer through higher managerial or supervisory personnel or by proving such a pervasiveness of sexual harassment at the work place as to create an inference of the employer’s knowledge or constructive knowledge of it and (b) that the employer’s remedial action was not of such nature as to have been reasonably calculated to end the harassment. Id.

 

-ANALYSIS-

The Court only addressed the fourth element by reviewing the trial court’s finding as follows:

In the case at bar, [the employer] knew or should have known that [the male co-worker’s] unwelcome sexual advances and other verbal or physical conduct of his [sic] sexual nature were unreasonably interfering with [the plaintiffs’] work performance and/or created an intimidating, hostile or offensive working environment. Further, no reasonable immediate or appropriate corrective action was taken to remedy the situation.

Id. at 407 (citing Trial Court Finding of fact 54). The Court determined that “this finding is amply supported by the record; it is also unchallenged on appeal.”

 

-CONCLUSION-

The Court held that “the plaintiff-employees established that they were subjected to uninvited sexual harassment by a co-worker with the actual knowledge of two supervisory personnel who undertook no reasonably prompt and adequate remedial measures to alleviate the resulting hostile and intimidating work environment in which the employees found themselves.” Id. at 404. The Court further held that “the recovery of damages by the plaintiff-employees for the mental and emotional suffering they sustained was an appropriate remedy for such unlawful sexual discrimination.” Id.

 


ISSUE #2:  Does a determination of unlawful discrimination support Plaintiffs’ claims of constructive discharge from employment?

 

-RULE-

The “existence of unlawful discharge alone is insufficient to support a finding of constructive discharge from employment.” Id. at 408.

 

-ANALYSIS-

The Court found that “the evidence in this case was not sufficient to convince the trial court, as the trier of fact, that either of the employees’ resignations constituted a constructive discharge such as to justify additional damages on account thereof.”

 

-CONCLUSION-

The Court agreed with the trial court and found “that the existence of unlawful discrimination alone is insufficient to support a finding of constructive discharge from employment. Id. at 408 (referencing generally, Henson v. Dundee, 682 F.2d 897, 907-08 (11th Cir. 1982); Nolan v. Cleland, 686 F.2d 806, 812-13 (9th Cir.1982); see also, Johnson v. Bunny Bread Co., 646 F.2d 1250, 1256 (8th Cir.1981)). Accordingly, the Court held that “on the record Before us we cannot conclude this was error” for the trial court to hold that the facts did not permit a finding that either of the plaintiffs were constructively discharged from their jobs. Id.

 



NOTABLES & IMPLICATIONS:

POLICY

[~1]  “Sexual harassment as a working condition unfairly handicaps an employee against whom it is directed in his or her work performance and as such is a barrier to sexual equality in the workplace.” Id. at 405.

[~2]  “[W]e view the essential purpose of [the sexual harassment cause of action] to be preventative in nature.” See id. at 407-08 (referencing Bundy v. Jackson, 641 F.2d 934, 945 (D.C.Cir.1981).

[~3]  “[T]he Act does not impose a duty on the employer to maintain a pristine working environment. Rather, it imposes a duty on the employer to take prompt and appropriate action when it knows or should know of co-employees’ conduct in the workplace amounting to sexual harassment.” Id. at 406 (citing Continental Can Co. v. Minnesota, 297 N.W.2d 241, 249 (Minn.1980)).

QUID PRO QUO SEXUAL HARASSMENT

[~4]  Quid Pro Quo sexual harassment is “a situation where an employer requires sexual consideration from an employee as a quid pro quo for job benefits.” Id. at 405.

TITLE VII

[~5]  “Interpretations of Title VII, § 703 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. § 2000e-2(a)(1) (1982) are not binding on this court, but are instructive and lend support to our decision herein.” Id. at 409, n.2 (referencing Davis v. Department of Labor & Indus., 94 Wash.2d 119, 615 P.2d 1279 (1980). See generally, Barrett v. Omaha Nat’l Bank, 726 F.2d 424 (8th Cir.1984); Katz v. Dole, 709 F.2d 251 (4th Cir.1983); Henson v. Dundee, 682 F.2d 897 (11th Cir.1982); Bundy v. Jackson, 641 F.2d 934 (D.C.Cir.1981)).

 


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If you would like to learn more, consider contacting an experienced employment discrimination attorney to discuss your case. This article is not offered as legal advice and will not establish an attorney-client relationship with Williams Law Group, Law Office of Gregory A. Williams, P.S., Inc., or the author of this article. By reading this article, you agree to our Disclaimer|Terms-of-Use|Privacy policy.

Barnes v. Washington Natural Gas Co., 22 Wn.App. 576 (Div. I 1979)

NOTE: The following article is my summary of an appellate court opinion based upon my point of view. This is not a resource for the actual and complete appellate court opinion. Please review our Disclaimer|Terms of Use|Privacy Policy before proceeding.


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CASE SUMMARY:

(1) Barnes was hired by WNGC in the early part of 1975 as a ‘helper’ on the natural gas line.

(2) He alleges that after approximately one month’s employment at WNGC his employment was terminated because of an erroneous belief on WNGC’s part that he suffered from epilepsy.

(3) Barnes contends that he does not now, nor did he ever have, epilepsy.

(4) He alleges that his termination by WNGC was based upon a perceived but nonexistent handicap in violation of RCW 49.60.180.

(5) After filing its answer and affirmative defenses, a motion for judgment on the pleadings was made by WNGC.

(6) The trial court entered judgment dismissing the action, holding: (1) That those portions of RCW 49.60 which seek to prohibit discrimination on the basis of ‘any sensory, mental, or physical handicap’ are unconstitutionally vague and, therefore, void and alternatively, (2) That plaintiff is without standing to bring and action against defendant pursuant to the provisions of RCW 49.60.

(7) After the determination by the trial court, the Supreme Court in Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & P.Ry v. Human Rights Comm’n, 87 Wash.2d 802, 557 P.2d 307 (1976), held that provision of the Act pertinent here not unconstitutionally vague.

(8) The unconstitutionality of the statute is not argued by WNGC, except [the Court is] … urged to reverse the ruling that the statute is not unconstitutionally vague for the reasons stated in the respondent Milwaukee R.R.’s brief in that case.

(9) The Court refused the invitation.

(10) The Court held that the [Washington State Human Rights Commission] regulation WAC 162.22.040(1)(b)(iii) [currently WAC 162-22-020] is within the scope of the [Washington Law Against Discrimination], and Barnes has standing to maintain this action.

(11) The Court reversed and remanded to the trial court for further proceedings consistent with this opinion.

-Barnes v. Washington Natural Gas Co., 22 Wn.App. 576 (Div. I 1979).


ISSUE #1:  Under the WLAD, may a plaintiff have standing to sue their employer for disability discrimination when based on perceived disability?

 

-RULE-

UNFAIR PRACTICES OF EMPLOYERS:  RCW 49.60.180 declares, in part, that it is an unfair practice for any employer “to discharge or bar any person from employment because of … the presence of any sensory, mental, or physical handicap.” Id. at 578.

WASHINGTON ADMINISTRATIVE CODE:  “The Washington State Human Rights Commission (The Commission) has adopted regulation WAC 162-22-040 [currently WAC 162-22-020] as follows:

(1) For the purpose of determining whether an unfair practice under RCW 49.60.180-.190, or -.200 has occurred:

(a) A condition is a ‘sensory, mental or physical handicap’ if it is an abnormality and is a reason why the person having the condition did not get or keep the job in question, or was denied equal pay for equal work, or was discriminated against in other terms and conditions of employment, or was denied equal treatment in other areas covered by the statutes. In other words, for enforcement purposes a person will be considered to be Handicapped by a sensory, mental or physical condition if he or she is Discriminated against because of the condition and the condition is abnormal. (emphasis in original.)

(b) ‘The presence of a sensory, mental, or physical handicap’ includes, but is not limited to, circumstances where a sensory, mental, or physical condition:

(i) is medically recognizable or diagnosable;

(ii) exists as a record of history; or

(iii) is perceived to exist, whether or not it exists in fact.

(2) An example of subsection (1)(b)(ii) is a record showing that the worker had a heart attack five years ago. An example of subsection (1)(b)(iii) is a rejection of a person for employment because he had a florid face and the employer thought that he had high blood pressure.” Id. at 579.

“The Commission … had been granted broad discretion and responsibility for administration of the Act. We must rely upon and give weight to the Commission’s interpretations of the statute reflected in its regulations.” Id. at 581.

JUDICIAL REVIEW OF REGULATIONS:  “There is a presumption that the regulation is valid, and the burden of challenging it is upon the party attacking it.” Id. at 580 (referencing Weyerhaeuser Co. v. Department of Ecology, 86 Wash.2d 310, 314, 545 P.2d 5 (1976)). The Court’s “review in such situations generally is limited to determining whether the regulation is reasonably consistent with the statute it purports to implement.” Id. (citing Weyerhaeuser Co., 86 Wn.2d at 314.).

.

-ANALYSIS-

LEGISLATIVE INTENT:  The Court initially considered legislative intent to resolve the issue presented and reasoned, “It is the intent of the legislature to prohibit discrimination in employment against a person with a sensory handicap.” Id. at 582. But “it would be an anomalous situation if discrimination in employment would be prohibited against those who possess the handicap but would not include within the class a person ‘perceived’ by the employer to have the handicap.” Id.

ESSENCE OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION:  The Court then defined the essence of unlawful employment discrimination as “the application of unreasonable generalizations about people to the hiring, promotion and discharge of workers.” Id. It considered the history of disability as a protected class, finding, “race, religious creed and sex are among the prohibited criteria for judging workers’ qualifications because of the prejudgments often made on the basis of these characteristics.” Id. The Court explained that proscriptions of discrimination against handicapped persons were added to WLAD in 1973 on account of “similar prejudgments often made about persons afflicted with sensory, mental or physical handicaps, such as epilepsy.” Id.

LEGISLATIVE PURPOSE:  The Court also evaluated legislative purpose by first declaring that a person “who is perceived to be afflicted with epilepsy may be discriminated against because of his or her perceived handicap even though that perception turns out to be false in either case.” Id. The Court reasoned that “it would defeat legislative purpose to limit the handicap provisions of the law against discrimination to those who are actually afflicted with a handicap, such as epilepsy, and exclude from its provision those perceived as having such condition.” Id. The Court went on to declare that “prejudice in the sense of a judgment or opinion formed before the facts are known is the fountainhead of discrimination engulfing medical disabilities which prove on examination to be unrelated to job performance or to be nonexistent.” Id. It determined that the intent of the law is to “protect workers against such prejudgment based upon insufficient information.” The Court then found that “the law’s application, therefore, should not be limited to those who actually have handicaps, excluding those who are discriminated against in the same way because they are only thought to have handicaps.” Id.

PROTECTED CLASS:  Next, the Court essentially provided a broad definition of disability as a protected class: “The class protected by the statute is those persons whom the employer discharges or intends to discharge because he believes the person is afflicted with a ‘mental, sensory, or physical handicap.'” Id. at 583 (emphasis added). This definition apparently includes both actual and perceived mental, sensory, or physical handicaps.

APPLICATION OF POLICY:  The Court applied public policy to the instant case and found that WLAD’s policy to “eliminate and prevent discrimination in employment requires protecting from discriminatory practices both those perceived to be handicapped as well as those who are handicapped.” Id.

EMPLOYER’S INTERESTS:  Before reaching its holding, the Court also considered the employer’s interests reasoning that the employer was fully protected, because [WLAD] provides “that the prohibition against discrimination because of such handicaps shall not apply if the particular disability prevents the proper performance of the particular worker involved.” Id. (citing RCW 49.60.180(1)).

 

-CONCLUSION-

The Court held that Barnes had standing to maintain his action of disability discrimination under WLAD based on perceived disability; and it reversed and remanded the cause to the trial court for further proceedings consistent with its opinion.

 


ISSUE #2:  Is [former] WAC 162-22-040(1)(b)(iii) valid?

 

-RULE-

PRESUMPTION OF VALIDITY: There is a presumption that the regulation is valid, and the burden of challenging it is upon the party attacking it. Id. at 580 (internal citation omitted). The Court’s review in such situation generally is limited to determining whether the regulation is reasonably consistent with the statute it purports to implement. Id. (internal citation omitted). The Washington State Human Rights Commission has been granted broad discretion and responsibility for administration of the WLAD. Id. at 581. The Court must rely upon and give weight to the Commission’s interpretations of the statute reflected in its regulations. Id. (internal citation omitted).

 

-ANALYSIS-

See analysis under Issue #1 above..

.

-CONCLUSION-

The Court held that the Washington State Human Rights Commission regulation WAC 162.22.040(1)(b)(iii) was within the scope of the Washington Law Against Discrimination, and it reversed and remanded the cause to the trial court for further proceedings consistent with its opinion.

 



NOTABLES & IMPLICATIONS:

PUBLIC POLICY

[~1]  “Public policy, expressed by the [Washington Law Against Discrimination] to eliminate and prevent discrimination in employment requires protecting from discriminatory practices both those perceived to be handicapped as well as those who are handicapped.” Id. at 583.

WASHINGTON STATE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION

[~2]  “The Washington State Human Rights Commission (referred to as the Board in the Act) is the agency established by the Washington State Law Against Discrimination (the Act) ‘with powers with respect to elimination and prevention of discrimination in employment … because of … the presence of any sensory, mental, or physical handicap; and the (commission) established hereunder is hereby given general jurisdiction and power for such purposes.’ RCW 49.60.010. The regulations have been adopted by the Commission to implement its powers to administer the Act pursuant to RCW 49.60.120:  ‘The (commission) shall have the functions, power, and duties: … (3) To adopt, promulgate, amend, and rescind suitable rules and regulations to carry out the provisions of this chapter, and the policies and practices of the (commission) in connection therewith.'” Id. at 583 n. 2

 


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If you would like to learn more, consider contacting an experienced employment discrimination attorney to discuss your case. This article is not offered as legal advice and will not establish an attorney-client relationship with Williams Law Group, Law Office of Gregory A. Williams, P.S., Inc., or the author of this article. By reading this article, you agree to our Disclaimer|Terms-of-Use|Privacy policy.

Allison v. Housing Authority of City of Seattle, 118 Wn.2d 79 (Wash. 1991)

NOTE: The following article is my summary of an appellate court opinion based upon my point of view. This is not a resource for the actual and complete appellate court opinion. Please review our Disclaimer|Terms of Use|Privacy Policy before proceeding.


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CASE SUMMARY:

(1) Allison sued the Housing Authority of the City of Seattle [(hereinafter, ‘Housing Authority’)], claiming, among other things, that the Housing Authority retaliated against here for filing an age discrimination complaint when she was released in a reduction in force.

(2) In a special verdict form, a jury found that the Housing Authority had discriminated and/or retaliated against Allison when she was laid off.

(3) The Housing Authority appealed to the Court of Appeals, claiming that the jury instruction on proximate causation for a retaliation claim was erroneous.

(4) That jury instruction required Ms. Allison to show that her discharge was motivated ‘to any degree by retaliation.’

(5) On appeal, the Washington State Court of Appeals Division I reversed and remanded the case, holding that the jury instruction should have required Allison to show that, but for filing a discrimination complaint, she would not have been discharged.

(6) [The WA Supreme Court] declined to adopt either the ‘but for’ standard advanced by the Court of Appeals or the ‘to any degree’ standard used by the trial court.

(7) [The WA Supreme Court] adopt[ed] an intermediate standard for causation, a ‘substantial factor’ approach, and remanded this case to the trial court.

-Allison v. Housing Authority of City of Seattle, 118 Wn.2d 79, 81 (Wash. 1991).


ISSUE #1:  What is the appropriate standard of causation when an employee brings a claim of retaliatory discharge under RCW 49.60.210?

 

-RULE-

The Washington Law Against Discrimination (WLAD) “contains a sweeping policy statement strongly condemning many forms of discrimination.” Id. at 85 (citing RCW 49.60.010). The WLAD requires that it “shall be construed liberally for the accomplishment of the purposes thereof.” Id. at 85-86 (citing RCW 49.60.020). In resolving a question of statutory construction, the Court will “adopt the interpretation which best advances the legislative purpose.” Id. at 86 (internal citations and quotation marks omitted). Federal case law “is not unequivocal, and is only persuasive authority.” Id. at 91. And “Title VII differs from RCW 49.60 in that Title VII does not contain a provision which requires liberal construction for the accomplishment of its purposes.” Id. at 88.

 

-ANALYSIS-

The Court evaluated the issue based on several argument categories as follows: (1) arguments based on the language of RCW 49.60; (2) arguments based on Federal and Washington state case law; (3) arguments based on public policy considerations; and (4) the Wilmot case.

(1) LANGUAGE OF RCW 49.60:  The Court determined that the “language of RCW 49.60 supports a more liberal standard of causation than the ‘but for’ standard adopted by the Court of Appeals. Id. at 85. The Housing Authority utilized Title VII cases for analogy and attempted to argue theoretically higher causation requirements under RCW 49.60.180 (discrimination) should also be applied to RCW 49.60.180 case” and, thus, such a standard “may be illusory”; that Title VII differs from RCW 49.60 because it “does not contain a provision which requires liberal construction for the accomplishment of its purposes”; and that “the ‘but for’ standard of causation adopted by the Court of Appeals in the instant case would negatively affect enforcement of WLAD Id. at 88.

(2) FEDERAL & STATE CASE LAW:  The Court considered various case law offered by the parties at both the federal and state level. It then concluded that federal case law does not give clear support for the adoption of a stringent “but for” standard of causation, and state case law does not directly address the issue of whether the liberal “to any degree” language should be used in jury instructions; and the Court has never approved the “to any degree” standard. Id. at 91. “Because federal law is not unequivocal, and is only persuasive authority, we adopt a standard that best corresponds with the language and policies contained in this state’s antidiscrimination law.” Id. at 91.

(3) PUBLIC POLICY CONSIDERATIONS:  The Court evaluated policy considerations at opposite ends of the dichotomy — the “but for” test on the one end and the “to any degree” test on the other. It then reasoned that competing policy considerations dictate that the most sensible approach is to adopt an intermediate standard test–the “substantial factor” approach–generally applied in multiple causation cases. Id. at 95. This would address the issue of both legitimate and illegitimate motives that often lurk behind discriminatory or retaliatory discharge while preventing employees from abusing the protection that the–“to any degree”–lower standard of causation would give them.

(4) THE WILMOT CASE:  The Court then applied the public policy considerations that it expressed in Wilmot v. Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corp., 118 Wn.2d 46, 821 P.2d 18; a case in which the court applied the “substantial factor” approach to a retaliation claim under RCW 51.48.025 for filing a workers’ compensation claim. Particularly, the court analogized Wilmot to the instant case by explaining (a) that in both cases, the relevant statutes prohibit an employer from retaliating against an employee for opposing discrimination; and (b) that under both statutes, “employees are at a distinct disadvantage in a retaliation case because they must prove causation without the benefit of the employer’s own knowledge of the reason for the discharge” — “an employee does not have the access to proof that an employer usually has.” Id. at 96.

 

-CONCLUSION-

The Court in this case held that a “plaintiff bringing suit under RCW 49.60.210 must prove causation by showing that retaliation was a substantial factor motivating the adverse employment decision.” Id. at 96. It then remanded the cause to the trial court for retrial on the issue of whether age discrimination and/or retaliation caused Allison’s discharge.

 


ISSUE #2:  Is the evidence in this case insufficient to support an inference that discrimination and/or retaliation caused Allison’s discharge?

 

-RULE-

(The Court evaluated an unpublished portion of the Court of Appeals’ opinion in this case)

Testimonial evidence that supports an inference of discrimination and/or retaliation, when looked at in a light most favorable to the plaintiff, may be sufficient to allow a case to go to the jury. See id. at 98.

 

-ANALYSIS-

The employer (Housing Authority) in this case argued that there was insufficient evidence to support an inference that discrimination and/or retaliation caused Allison’s discharge. Id. at 96.

DISCRIMINATION EVIDENCE: The Court considered the following trial court evidence regarding Allison’s discrimination claim: (a) Allison’s manager made remarks about “little old ladies”; (b) the manager became hostile towards Allison when she learned Allison’s true age of 62; (c) after the manager learned Allison was in her sixties, her ratings of Allison declined; and (d) the manager refused Allison’s request for additional work. Id. at 97.

RETALIATION EVIDENCE: The Court considered the following trial court evidence regarding Allison’s retaliation claim: (a) Allison’s manager gave her an allegedly unwarranted reprimand; (b) after Allison filed her suit, the manager gave Allison her lowest performance evaluation; and (c) an “aging checklist” was pinned on Allison’s cubicle after she filed her discrimination suit. Id.

 

-CONCLUSION-

The Court held that “based on the evidence listed above, the Court of Appeals was correct in its conclusion that there was thin, but sufficient testimony for this case to go to the jury.”

The Court also addressed attorney’s fees.

 


NOTABLES & IMPLICATIONS:

ATTORNEY’S FEES

[~1]  RCW 49.60.030(2) has been interpreted as granting parties to attorney fees on appeal. Id. at 98 (citing Fahn v. Cowlitz Cy., 95 Wn.2d 679, 685, 628 P.2d 813 (1981); Pannell v. Food Servs. of Am., 61 Wn.App. 418, 449-50, 810 P.2d 952 (1991)).

CAUSATION

[~2]  “The ‘but for’ standard of causation adopted by the Court of Appeals in Allison will negatively affect enforcement of the law against discrimination.” Id. at 88.

MCDONNELL DOUGLAS APPROACH

[~3]  Under the McDonnell Approach–McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green, 411 U.S. 792, 802-05, 93 S.Ct. 1817, 1824-25, 36 L.Ed.2d 668 (1973)–“the plaintiff must establish a prima facie case, and then the burden of production shifts to the defendant to state a legitimate reason for the employment decision; the plaintiff can attempt to prove that the employer’s offered reason is a pretext.” Id. at 88-89 (internal citations omitted).

[~4]  Under the McDonnell Approach, “the burden of persuasion remains at all times upon the pliantiff/employee” in a discrimination or retaliation claim. Id. at 90, 93 (citing Grimwood v. University of Puget Sound, Inc., 110 Wn.2d 355, 363, 753 P.2d 517 (1988); and citing Wilmot v. Kaiser Aluminum & Chem. Corp., 118 Wn.2d 46, 821 P.2d 18 (1991), respectively).

[~5]  Under the McDonnell Approach, the “federal cases provide only guidance” and “even the McDonnell test should not be rigidly applied. Id. (citing Grimwood v. University of Puget Sound, Inc., 110 Wn.2d 355, 362, 753 P.2d 517 (1988)).

WLAD GENERALLY

[~6]  The WLAD “does not provide any criteria for establishing a discrimination case.” Id. at 88 (citing Grimwood, 110 Wn.2d at 361).

[~7]  The WLAD “contains a sweeping policy statement strongly condemning many forms of discrimination.” Id. at 85 (citing RCW 49.60.010).

[~8]  The WLAD requires that “this chapter shall be construed liberally for the accomplishment of the purposes thereof.” Id. at 85-86 (citing RCW 49.60.020).

[~9]  The enforcement of the WLAD “depends in large measure on employee’s willingness to come forth and file charges or testify in discrimination cases. Id. at 86.

[~10]  “Plaintiffs bringing discrimination cases assume the role of a private attorney general, vindicating a policy of the highest priority.” Id. (internal citations and quotation marks omitted).

 


LEARN MORE

If you would like to learn more, consider contacting an experienced employment discrimination attorney to discuss your case. This article is not offered as legal advice and will not establish an attorney-client relationship with Williams Law Group, Law Office of Gregory A. Williams, P.S., Inc., or the author of this article. By reading this article, you agree to our Disclaimer|Terms-of-Use|Privacy policy.